Dharma



Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā-Sambuddhassa

Homage to Him, the Exalted, the Worthy, the Fully Enlightened One             

           Namo Buddhaya, Namo Dharmaya, Namo Shangaya   




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Vulture Peak, Rajgir city, Nalanda district, India,
where the Buddha preaches the Lotus Sutra
Đỉnh Linh Sơn (ngoại ô thành Vương Xá = Rajigir) nơi Đức Phật giảng kinh Pháp Hoa


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Om A Ra Pa Ja Na Di


A Little Buddha Of Tibet
~ o ~


The Human Route

Coming empty-handed, going empty-handed – that is human.
When you are born, where do you come from?
When you die, where do you go?
Life is like a floating cloud which appears.
Death is like a floating cloud which disappears.
The floating cloud itself originally does not exist.
Life and death, coming and going, are also like that.
But there is one thing which always remains clear.
It is pure and clear, not depending on life and death.
Then what is the one pure and clear thing?

Source: Kwan Um School of Zen


_oOo_



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The statues of The Buddha and his ten great Disciples in Bodhgaya, India

The Ten Great Disciples of the Buddha:

1 Ananda
(Đức A-Nan-Đà, Dharma Pitaka Holder, Buddha's cousin)

2. Sariputta 
(Đức Xá Lợi Phất, Master of the Heart Sutra)




Source: Wikipedia 
* 3. Maha Mogallana 
(Đức Mục Kiền Liên)

4. Subhuti  
(Master of the Diamond Sutra)

5.Upali 
(Vinaya Holder, full story below)

6. Maha Kassapa
Đức Ca Diếp (Tổ thứ nhất sau khi Đức Phập nhập Niết Bàn)

7. Punna
(When asked by the Buddha what he would think if people were to assault or kill him, each time Puṇṇa explained how he would find himself fortunate. As a result, the Buddha commended Puṇṇa on his self-control and peacefulness.)

8. Rahula 
(the Buddha's son)

9. Anuruddha
(the Buddha's cousin, read Upali story below)

10. Maha Katyayana (Kaccana in Pali)
(Master of Doctrinal Exposition)

-oOo-

Buddha ordains the last disciple

The Buddha had reached a full eighty years. At that time in Kusinara, a wandering ascetic named Subhadda heard that the Buddha was in the Sal Grove and that He would be passing away into Final Enlightenment (parinibbana) that very night. 

A certain doubt had occupied his mind and knowing that a fully-enlightened Buddha would be able to dispel his uncertainty, he considered it profitable to speak to Him. Having approached the Venerable Ananda, he made the request several times but, Ananda, thinking to protect the physically weakened Buddha from disturbance in His last hours, denied the requests. 

The Compassionate One, however, overheard the conversation and called Ananda, saying "Let him come here. He is a true seeker and asks not out of idle curiosity. It will be no annoyance to me. Let him come. He will understand." Naming a number of sages who all claimed to have knowlege of the Truth, Subhadda asked if all had this wisdom, or only some, and not others. 

The Buddha asked him to put aside that question temporarily and not concern himself with whether or not others had realized the Truth. 

He said that, irrespective of their doctrine or discipline, a liberated person of the highest saintliness will be found where the Noble Eightfold Path is found in its entirety. Conversely, saints of the highest attainment will not be found in other paths where the Eightfold Path does not exist or only partially exists. 

He cautioned Subhadda to reject creeds which lead to corruption, pain, birth, decay and death in time to come and to accept wholesome teachings by which a person, by one's own power, could find perfect wisdom. Subhadda requested the Master to speak about the Noble Eightfold Path and, having understood, his doubts were resolved. 

Subhadda requested and received full ordination from the Buddha Himself. He was the last of many thousands to be personally ordained by the Buddha. 

Before long, Subhadda abandoned the defilements and became an arhat.

_ oOo _
  Parinirvana (Death)
 
After nearly a half century of teaching, the Enlightened One predicted that He would pass away in three months time on the full moon of May. The news hurriedly spread over the land. 

The Venerable Ananda, who had yet to realize Enlightenment, begged the Blessed One to remain on earth longer. With great compassion, the Master gently reminded him it is in the nature of all composite things to pass away, to separate ourselves from all that is near and dear. Everything that is born, or brought into being, and organized, contains within itself the inherent propensity for dissolution. On one occasion, when the Order was gathered about the ailing Blessed One, He noticed that Ananda was not among them, but stood apart, weeping bitterly because the Buddha would soon pass away and he had not realized Enlightenment. 

After sending for him, the Buddha said, "For a long time, Ananda, you have been very near to me by acts of love in word, deed and thoughts. You have done well, Ananda! Be earnest in your efforts and you, too, shall know Liberation." 

When the Blessed One had journeyed to Kusinara, the Awakened One felt His long life was drawing to a close. He addressed the Order, assuring them He had not withheld any spiritual instruction regarding the Path leading to the end of sorrow and to Enlightenment. The Buddha stated He would not appoint a successor but, rather, He bequeathed the Holy Dhamma (the Truth) as the ultimate guide for their lives.

Counseling the Order, He said:

"Hold fast to the Truth and the Discipline as a lamp. Seek deliverance alone in the Truth. Strive on with diligence. Free yourself from the tangled net of sorrow and dissatisfaction. Look not for assistance to anyone besides yourself. In regard to the body and the mind, let one be mindful and overcome the greed which arises from the body's craving, which arises from craving for sensations, which arises from craving due to ideas, reasons and emotions. If one is mindful, seekers of Truth shall surely reach the top- most pinnacle of Emancipation. But they must be willing to learn."

The Buddha gave special exhortation to members of the Order: to practice and meditate on the Truth, and to spread it abroad so that the teachings would last long and be perpetuated for the good and happiness of great multitudes, out of compassion for the world and the good of every living being. He gave those in the Order, the teachers of many, the last chance to ask questions to resolve doubts or misunderstandings, noting this would be the final opportunity to question the Master face-to-face. All remained silent.

The Compassionate One said:

"It may be that you do not speak out of reverence for me as your teacher. If that is so, then speak to me as my friends.

Still, they remained silent. The Buddha, with His Wisdom-mind, saw into their inmost hearts that, indeed, no one had misgivings and that everyone assembled would surely realize Liberation. Finally, before passing away, the Buddha said:

"Perishable are all conditioned things, but the Truth will live forever! Work out your Liberation with diligence!"

The Buddha lay on a couch spread between two giant sal trees. The ancient texts say the trees blossomed out of season and sweet-smelling flowers scattered over His couch. 

Then, lying on His right side, calm and composed, the Great Being entered a profound state of deep meditative bliss and passed away (entered Parinibbana, the final decease of an All-Enlightened Buddha). A light spread over His face and then His body.

There occurred a mighty earthquake and from the depths of the earth a great roar arose, and from the heavens peal after peal of hair-raising thunder was heard. Those who were emancipated from sorrow bore their grief, collected and composed. Those who were not yet set free covered their faces and wept in anguish. Those who were liberated comforted the bereaved. 

After the Buddha passed away, prominent monks spent the rest of the night discussing the teachings. At dawn, the Venerable Ananda informed the Mallas of Kusinara of the death of the Master. 

For seven days the Mallas and throngs of people paid respect to the body of the Blessed One with lights, incense, garlands of flowers, instrumental music and religious songs. For the cremation ceremonies, a pyre of perfumed wood and flowers was prepared. 

The body of the Buddha was cremated with honor due the Greatest King. His relics were distributed to Kings in equal portion. They were enshrined in burial mounds (stupas) which have become sites of pilgrimage for the faithful. Thus the Buddha Sakyamuni passed from earthly eyes, yet His teachings of Truth, the way to end sorrow and life's pain, remains in our hearts and minds forever!



_oOo_

The First Sermon Of The Buddha At Saranath

by Jayaram V

After receiving enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, the Buddha remained in contemplation for a few days. Then he traveled to the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, where the five monks whom he met before were practicing austerities. Afte r meeting them, he gave them the First Sermon, in which he briefly laid out the entire gamut of the Buddha Dhamma, which he would propagate for the rest of his life. The Sermon is significant because it explains all the salient features of Buddhism, such s the middle way, the Eightfold Path, the Four Noble Truths, the origin and cessation of suffering, and how right living leads to knowledge, peace and nirvana. - Jayaram V

Thus I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana (the Resort of Seers). There he addressed the bhikkhus of the group of five.

"Bhikkhus, these two extremes ought not to be cultivated by one gone forth from the house-life. What are the two? There is devotion to indulgence of pleasure in the objects of sensual desire, which is inferior, low, vulgar, ignoble, and leads to no good; and there is devotion to self-torment, which is painful, ignoble and leads to no good.

"The middle way discovered by a Perfect One avoids both these extremes; it gives vision, it gives knowledge, and it leads to peace, to direct acquaintance, to discovery, to nibbana. And what is that middle way? It is simply the noble eightfold path, that is to say, right view, right intention; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. That is the middle way discovered by a Perfect One, which gives vision, which gives knowledge, and which leads to peace, to direct acquaintance, to discovery, to nibbana.

"Suffering, as a noble truth, is this: Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering, sorrow and lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; association with the loathed is suffering, dissociation from the loved is suffering, not to get what one wants is suffering — in short, suffering is the five categories of clinging objects.

"The origin of suffering, as a noble truth, is this: It is the craving that produces renewal of being accompanied by enjoyment and lust, and enjoying this and that; in other words, craving for sensual desires, craving for being, craving for non-being.

"Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, is this: It is remainderless fading and ceasing, giving up, relinquishing, letting go and rejecting, of that same craving.

"The way leading to cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, is this: It is simply the noble eightfold path, that is to say, right view, right intention; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

"'Suffering, as a noble truth, is this.' Such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the finding, the light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before. 'This suffering, as a noble truth, can be diagnosed.' Such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the finding, the light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before. 'This suffering, as a noble truth, has been diagnosed.' Such was the vision, the knowledge, the understanding, the finding, the light, that arose in regard to ideas not heard by me before.

"'The origin of suffering, as a noble truth, is this.' Such was the vision... 'This origin of suffering, as a noble truth, can be abandoned.' Such was the vision... 'This origin of suffering, as a noble truth, has been abandoned.' Such was the vision... in regard to ideas not heard by me before.

"'Cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, is this.' Such was the vision... 'This cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, can be verified.' Such was the vision... 'This cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, has been verified.' Such was the vision... in regard to ideas not heard by me before.

"'The way leading to cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, is this.' Such was the vision... 'This way leading to cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, can be developed.' Such was the vision... 'This way leading to the cessation of suffering, as a noble truth, has been developed.' Such was the vision... in regard to ideas not heard by me before.

"As long as my knowing and seeing how things are, was not quite purified in these twelve aspects, in these three phases of each of the four noble truths, I did not claim in the world with its gods, its Maras and high divinities, in this generation with its monks and brahmans, with its princes and men to have discovered the full Awakening that is supreme. But as soon as my knowing and seeing how things are, was quite purified in these twelve aspects, in these three phases of each of the four noble truths, then I claimed in the world with its gods, its Maras and high divinities, in this generation with its monks and brahmans, its princes and men to have discovered the full Awakening that is supreme. Knowing and seeing arose in me thus: 'My heart's deliverance is unassailable. This is the last birth. Now there is no renewal of being.'"

That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus of the group of five were glad, and they approved his words.

Now during this utterance, there arose in the venerable Kondanna the spotless, immaculate vision of the True Idea: "Whatever is subject to arising is all subject to cessation."

When the Wheel of Truth had thus been set rolling by the Blessed One the earth gods raised the cry: "At Benares, in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the matchless Wheel of truth has been set rolling by the Blessed One, not to be stopped by monk or divine or god or death-angel or high divinity or anyone in the world."

On hearing the earth-gods' cry, all the gods in turn in the six paradises of the sensual sphere took up the cry till it reached beyond the Retinue of High Divinity in the sphere of pure form. And so indeed in that hour, at that moment, the cry soared up to the World of High Divinity, and this ten-thousand fold world-element shook and rocked and quaked, and a great measureless radiance surpassing the very nature of the gods was displayed in the world.

Then the Blessed One uttered the exclamation: "Kondanna knows! Kondanna knows!," and that is how that venerable one acquired the name, Anna-Kondanna — Kondanna who knows.

_ oOo _

Upali the Barber


I was reading Tulku Drakpa Gyeltsen’s story and when I reached the part where he was ordained as a monk, he was described to be like the second Upali. I googled only discover a lot about this student of the Buddha. He has quite an incredible story of one of the Buddha’s student. It showed how revolutionary the Buddha was for doing away with caste differences and prejudices and ensured that this student was respected for his memory, knowledge and practice. Here’s the incredible account of Upali, the foremost holder of the Vinaya.
——

 The Buddha’s disciple Upali is remembered as the patriarch of the Vinaya, the rules of the monastic order. After the death and Parinirvana of the Buddha, Upali recited the Buddha’s rules to the monks assembled at the First Buddhist Council. This recitation became the basis of the Vinaya.

But Upali is worthy of remembrance for more than just his recitation of the Vinaya. He is said to have been born into the Sudra caste, the lowest caste of Hindu society at that time. Under the Hindu law from before the Buddha’s time, a Sudra was not allowed to receive sacraments and considered not worthy of following sacred law. But the Buddha accepted Upali as his disciple and treated him as an equal to disciples born into the highest caste.

Upali the Barber

The Sudra were consigned to being servants and laborers. They were not permitted to be educated. However, a Sudra could learn a skill, and Upali chose to learn to be a barber. His skill as a barber earned the patronage of the princes of the Shakya clan in Kapilavastu, where Prince Siddhartha had lived before he became the Buddha.

One day, about three years after his enlightenment, the Buddha returned home. And he needed a haircut. Upali was summoned to the palace. According to Buddhist legend, Upali received his first teaching in meditation as he cut the Buddha’s hair. It is said that Upali quickly mastered the four dhyanas.

After the Buddha left Kapilavastu, several of the princes who were the Buddha’s kinsmen decided to leave the palace and become monks. Upon hearing this, Upali shed a tear.

A prince named Aniruddha, who would become a great disciple in the future, took note of Upali’s sorrow. Aniruddha spread out a blanket and asked the princes to leave their gold and jewels on the blanket for Upali, as a final reward for his good service. And then the princes left.

Upali the Seeker

Upali took up the blanket full of treasure and started to walk home. And then he stopped. If the princes of Kapilavastu could leave all their possessions to become disciples, why couldn’t he? He left the blanket hanging on a tree and turned to find the Buddha.

As he walked, however, he began to doubt. How could the Buddha accept such a lowly person as a disciple? Upali sat down by the road and wept in despair.

The disciple Sariputra found the weeping Upali and asked him what was wrong. Upali asked if a low-caste Sudra could be accepted as a disciple and enter the order alongside the sons of kings and Brahmins.

Certainly, Sariputra replied. Anyone who can keep the Precepts can be a disciple of the Buddha. Then Sariputra and Upali walked together to find the Buddha.

The Shakya princes were still waiting to greet the Buddha when Upali joined them. Then the princes and their former barber were taken to the Buddha, and they bowed at his feet.

The Buddha asked Upali to come forward. Have you come to seek the way? the Buddha asked. Yes, noble sir, Upali meekly replied, if a person of low birth might be permitted to enter the order.

The Buddha told Upali that in the sangha, caste or former occupation did not matter. The only rank that mattered was seniority. And then he said, Upali, receive your ordination now.

Then the Buddha ordained the astonished Upali, right there, before ordaining the Shakya princes, meaning that Upali was now their senior and due obeisance from them. The Buddha told the princes that to leave the world they also had to leave social distinctions and privileges aside.

Upali the Disciple

Upali expressed his gratitude by learning and keeping the Precepts. As might be expected, the “rules guy” was not always popular with other monks and nuns. On one occasion word got back to the Buddha that Upali had been treated disrespectfully by other members of the order. So the Buddha gathered the monks and nuns and lectured them on the importance of the Precepts.

As time went on, respect for Upali grew. And when the Buddha had passed, Upali was needed more than ever.

The First Buddhist Council

The disciple Mahakasyapa was leading a number of monks to Kushinagara when news of the Buddha’s death reached him. The news caused some monks to grieve, but one monk said he was glad to be able to do as he wished.

Mahakasyapa was disturbed by this remark and worried for the future of the sangha and the Buddha’s teaching. So he convened a great assembly of senior monks, all arhats, to consider how to preserve the teachings and the order.

It was at this assembly that the disciple Ananda recited all of the Buddha’s sermons from memory. And then Upali was asked to recite the monastic rules. The assembled monks agreed that the recitations were accurate.

These recitations became the basis for the Sutra-pitaka and the Vinaya-pitaka of the Pali Tripitaka. Other versions of the Vinaya were preserved in other language traditions as well. The practice of the humble barber Upali sustains the monastic sangha to this day.
_oOo_
1. Anuruddha Thera

First cousin of the Buddha and one of his most eminent disciples. He was the son of the Sākyan Amitodana and brother of Mahānāma. When members of other Sākyan families had joined the Order of their distinguished kinsman, Mahānāma was grieved that none had gone forth from his own. He therefore suggested to his brother that one of them should leave household life. Anuruddha was at first reluctant to agree, for he had been reared most delicately and luxuriously, dwelling in a different house for each season, surrounded by dancers and mimes. But on hearing from Mahānāma of the endless round of household cares he agreed to go. He could not, however, get his mother's consent until he persuaded his cousin Bhaddiya to go with him. Together they went with Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta and their barber Upāli, to the Blessed One at the Anupiya Mango Grove and were ordained. Before the rainy season was over Anuruddha acquired the dibbacakkhu (Vin.ii.180-3; Mtu.iii.177f), and he was later ranked foremost among those who had obtained this attainment (A.i.23).

He then received from Sāriputta, as topic of meditation, the eight thoughts of a great man. The list is given in A.iv.228ff. Another conversation he had with Sāriputta before becoming an arahant is reported in A.i.281-2. He went into the Pācīnavamsadāya in the Ceti country to practise these. He mastered seven, but could not learn the eighth. The Buddha, being aware of this, visited him and taught it to him. Thereupon Anuruddha developed insight and realised arahantship in the highest grade (A.iv. loc. cit.; AA.108-9; Thag.901).

Anuruddha appears in the Suttas as an affectionate and loyal comrade-bhikkhu, full of affection to his kinsman, the Buddha, who returned his love. In the assembly he stood near the Buddha (Bu.v.60). When the Buddha, disgusted with the quarrels of the Kosambī monks, went away to seek more congenial surroundings, it was to Pācīnavamsadāya that he repaired, where were Anuruddha, Nandiya and Kimbila. The Upakkilesa Sutta (M.iii.153f.), on the sweets of concord and freedom from blemish, seems to have been preached specially to Anuruddha on that occasion, for we are told at the end that he was pleased to have heard it, no mention being made of the other two. And again in the Nalakapāna Sutta (M.i.462ff.), though a large number of distinguished monks are present, it is to Anuruddha that the Buddha directly addresses his questions, and it is Anuruddha who answers on behalf of them all. See also the Cūla- and the Mahā-Gosinga Suttas.

Anuruddha was present when the Buddha died at Kusinārā, and knew the exact moment of his death; the verse he uttered on that occasion is thoughtful and shows philosophic calm, in contrast, for example, with that of Ananda. D.ii.156-7. On this see Oldenberg, Nachrichten der Wissenschaften zu Goettingen, 1902, pp.168f.; and Przyluski JA. mai-juin, 1918, pp.486ff.

Anuruddha was foremost in consoling the monks and admonishing them as to their future course of action. It was Anuruddha again that the Mallas of Kusinārā consulted regarding the Buddha's last obsequies (D.ii.160f). Later, at the First Council, he played a prominent part and was entrusted with the custody of the Anguttara Nikāya (DA.i.15).

In one of the verses ascribed to Anuruddha in the Theragāthā (904; ThagA.ii.72) it is said that for twenty-five years he did not sleep at all, and that for the last thirty years of his life he slept only during the last watch of the night. The same source (Thag.908; also S.i.200) mentions an occasion where a goddess, Jālinī (ThagA.ii.73; this story is given in detail in SA.i.225-6), who had been his wife in a previous birth, seeing him grown old and grey with meditation, seeks to tempt him with the joys of heaven, but he tells her he has no need of such things, having attained to freedom from rebirth.

His death took place in Veluvagāma in the Vajji country, in the shade of a bamboo thicket. Thag.919. See also Psalms of the Brethren, p.331, n.1. I cannot trace the reference to Hatthigāma. He was one hundred and fifteen years old at the time of his death (DA.ii.413).

In Padumuttara Buddha's time he had been a rich householder. Hearing one of the monks declared best among possessors of the celestial eye, he wished for a similar honour for himself in the future. He did acts of great merit towards that end, including the holding of a great feast of light in front of the Buddha's tomb. In Kassapa Buddha's age he was born in Benares; one day he placed bowls filled with clarified butter all round the Buddha's tomb and lighted them, himself walking round the tomb all night, bearing on his head a lighted bowl.

Later he was reborn in a poor family in Benares and was named Annabhāra (lit. "food-bearer"). One day, while working for his master, the banker Sumana, he gave his meal to a Pacceka Buddha, Uparittha. The banker, having heard from the deity of his parasol of Annabhāra's pious deed, rewarded him and set him up in trade. The king, being pleased with him, gave him a site for a house, the ground of which, when dug, yielded much buried treasure. On account of this great accretion of wealth he was given the rank of Dhanasetthi (ThagA.ii.65ff.; Thag.910; DhA.iv.120ff).

According to the Dhammapada Commentary (i.113), as a result of his gift to the Pacceka Buddha, Anuruddha never lacked anything he desired - such had been the wish he expressed. A charming story is related in this connection. Once when playing at ball with his friends he was beaten and had to pay with sweets. His mother sent him the sweets, but he lost over and over again until no more sweets were to be had. His mother sent word to that effect, but he did not know the meaning of the words "there isn't." When his mother, to make him understand, sent him an empty bowl, the guardian deity of the city filled it with celestial cakes, so that he should not be disappointed. Thereafter, whenever Anuruddha sent for cakes, his mother would send him an empty vessel, which became filled on the way. See also DhA.iv.124ff.

The Apadāna (i.35) mentions another incident of his past. Once, in Sumedha Buddha's time, Anuruddha, having seen the Buddha meditating alone at the foot of a tree, set up lights round him and kept them burning for seven days. As a result he reigned for thirty kappas as king of the gods, and was king of men twenty-eight times. He could see a distance of a league both by day and night.

On various occasions Anuruddha had discussions with the Buddha, and he was consulted by disciples, both monks and laymen, on points of doctrine and practice. In the Anuruddha Sutta (M.iii.144f) he goes with Abhiya Kaccāna and two others to a meal at the house of Pañcakanga, the king's carpenter. At the end of the meal the carpenter asks him the difference between that deliverance of the heart (cetovimutti) that is boundless (appamāna) and that which is vast (mahaggata). The discussion leads on to an account of the four states of rebirth among the brilliant gods (ābhā), and in reply to the questions of Abhiya Kaccāna, Anuruddha proceeds to explain their nature. At the end of the discourse we find Anuruddha acknowledging that he himself had lived among these gods.

In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.240-5) he is mentioned as questioning the Buddha about women, how they come to be born in happy states and how in woeful purgatory. A similar inquiry is mentioned in the Anguttara Nikāya. Anuruddha had been visited by some Manāpakāyikā devas, who had played and sung to him and shown their power of changing their complexions at will. He comes to the Buddha and asks how women could be born among these devas (A.iv.262ff).

We find him (S.v.174-6, also 299f) being asked by Samyutta and Moggallāna about the sekha and asekha and about super-knowledge (abhiññā). In dealing with this passage the Commentary (SA.iii.183) states that Anuruddha used to rise early, and that after ablutions he sat in his cell, calling up a thousand kappas of the past and the future. With his clairvoyant eye he knew the thousand fold universe and all its workings.

The Anuruddha Samyutta (S.v.294) gives an account of a series of questions asked by Moggallāna on the satipatthānā, their extent, etc. Anuruddha evidently laid great emphasis on the cultivation of the satipatthānā, for we find mention of them occurring over and over again in his discourses. He attributes all his powers to their development, and admonishes his hearers to practise them. S.v.299-306. He himself considered the dibbacakkhu as the highest attainment. Thus in the Mahāgosinga Sutta (M.i.213) he declares it to be more worthy than knowledge of the doctrine, meditation, forest-life, discourse on the abhidhamma or self-mastery.

Once he lay grievously ill in the Andhavana in Sāvatthi, but the pain made no impression on his mind, because, he says, his mind was well grounded in the satipatthānā (S.v.302, but see DhA.iv.129, where he suffered from wind in the stomach). Apart from his teaching of the satipatthānā, he does not seem to have found fame as a teacher. He was of a retiring disposition and never interfered in any of the monks' quarrels.

Mention is often made of Anuruddha's iddhi-powers. Thus, he was one of those who went to the Brahma-world to curb the pride of the Brahma who had thought that no ascetic could reach his world (S.i.145. The others being Moggallāna, Mahākassapa and Mahākappina). The mother of the Yakkha Piyankara, while wandering in search of food, heard him at night reciting some verses from the Dhammapada and stood spellbound listening (S.i.209; SA.i.237-8).

His iddhi, however, does not seem to have enabled him to prevent his fellow-dweller Abhiñjika from talking too much (S.ii.203-4), nor his other fellow-dweller Bāhiya from attempting to create dissension in the Order (A.ii.239). Among the Vajjians he seems to have been held particularly in esteem, together with Nandiya and Kimbila. A yakkha named Dīgha tells the Buddha how the Vajjians are envied by the inhabitants of the deva and brahma worlds on account of the presence of these distinguished monks in their country (in the Cūlagosinga Sutta, M.i.210).

In numerous Jātakas Anuruddha is identified with personalities occurring in the Atītavatthu. In several cases he is mentioned as having been Sakka, the deus ex machina of the story in question. Thus in the Manicora (J.ii.125); Guttila (ii.257); Ayakūta (iii.147); Mahāsūka (iii.494); Cullasūka (iii.496); Kanha (iv.14); Akitti (iv.242); Sādhīna (iv.360); Siri (iv.412); Mahāsutasoma (v.511); Sāma (vi.95); Nimi (vi.129); Mahāsumagga (vi.329); Vessantara (vi.593).

Elsewhere he is identified with different personalities:

he was Pabbata in the Indriya (iii.469) and in the Sarabhanga (v.151);
the king in the Candakinnara (iv.288);
one of the seven brothers in the Bhisa (iv.314);
the dove in the Pañcūposatha (iv.332);
Ajapāla in the Hatthipāla (iv.491);
Sucirata in the Sambhava (v.67);
Pañcasikha in the Sudhdābojana (v.412) and
the charioteer in the Kurudhamma (ii.381).
Anuruddha's name occurs in several of the legends of the Dhammapada Commentary apart from those already mentioned. In the story of Cūlasubhaddā it is stated that after the Buddha had visited Ugganagara at Cūlasubhadda's request and enjoyed her hospitality, Anuruddha was asked to stay behind at Ugganagara for her benefit and that of the new converts (DhA.iii.471). When the Buddha spent a rainy season in Tāvatimsa preaching the Abhidhamma, it was Anuruddha who kept the people on earth informed of his doings. DhA.iii.218f.; SnA. (ii.570), states that the Buddha went to Tāvatimsa at Anuruddha's request.

In the Sumanasāmanera Vatthu (DhA.iv.120ff ) we are told how Anuruddha, having himself attained salvation, sought for his friend and benefactor of a past birth, Sumana-setthi. Sumana-setthi had been born near the Vindhyā forest as Cūllasumana, son of Anuruddha's acquaintance Mahāmunda, and Anuruddha ordained him at the age of seven. The lad became arahant in the tonsure-hall.

According to the Peta Vatthu (Pv., p.27, vv. 58-60), it was by virtue of a spoonful of food given by him to Anuruddha that Indaka entered Tāvatimsa, and the same gift enabled him to surpass in glory Ankura, who had spent all his wealth in practising generosity.

Anuruddha had a sister, Rohinī, who suffered from a skin disease and, therefore, remained indoors; she would not see the Elder when he visited her relations. But he insisted on seeing her and persuaded her to sell her ornaments and build a resting hall for the Buddha and his monks. She later became a Stream-enterer and was reborn as Sakka's consort (DhA.iii.295f).


In Mahāyāna books Anuruddha's name appears as Aniruddha. In the Lalitavistara he is mentioned as wearing the Bodhisatta's ornaments when the latter renounced the world. He is sometimes spoken of as a son of Dronodana. Thus, e.g., Mtu i.75; iii.117. See Beal, Records of Western World, ii.38 n. for meaning of Anuruddha. According to the Dulva, it was Anuruddha who, finding Ananda still asekha, got him turned out of the First Council until he became an arahant (Rockhill, p.151).

_oOo_
 
Maha Kassapa
 
Two thousand and five hundred years ago, in the village of Magadha Kingdom, there was a rich Brahmin whose wealth and property were estimated to be more than those of the king. Venerable Maha Kassapa was born in this Brahmin family.

Like Buddha, Maha Kassapa was also born under the tree. He was named Pipphali which meant " born under the tree". As he was the only son in the family, he received every care and love from his parents. At the age of eight, he learned painting, arithmetic, literature, music and so on. Unlike the other kids, he had no desire for material comfort and pleasures, and he preferred to be alone.

Time passed quickly, Maha Kassapa had grown into a handsome young man and his parents wanted him to get married. Maha Kassapa expressed his wish to practise a religious life. But his parents did not approve him to do so. Maha Kassapa thought out a plan to stop his parents from forcing him to get married. He hired a famous sculptor to sculpture a statue of a beautiful lady out of gold. He then took the statue to his parents and said, "If you want me to get married, you must find a lady as pretty as this statue to be my wife."

His parents were troubled by his request and finally they followed the advice of a Brahmin who placed the golden statue under a great umbrella and sent it to every corner of Magadha. Whenever the statue was brought to a place, the Brahmin would tell the crowd, "Ladies, give offerings to this goddess and you will get your wish."

He later sailed across the Ganges (or the Holy River) and reached a city called Vaisali. There lived a rich Brahmin who had a pretty daughter named Subhadra. One day, Subhadra, noted for her great beauty, was invited by her friends to worship the golden goddess. She was so pretty that the golden goddess was overshadowed by her. The Brahmin was very delighted. He then paid a visit to her family and her parents gladly approved of the marriage.

Everything was arranged and Subhadra was brought to the family of Maha Kassapa. On the wedding night, both of the bridegroom and the bride looked worried and sat aside. Finally Maha Kassapa broke the silence and asked Subhadra what troubled her. Subhadra replied, "I have no desire for the five passions and I would like to practise a religious life. But my father was tempted by the wealth of your family and agreed to this marriage. Now my hope of practicing a religious life was dashed."

Maha Kassapa was glad to learn this and both agreed to sleep on separate beds.

Their parents were very unhappy when they came to know their son and daughter-in-law slept separately. They ordered one bed to be removed from their room. Maha Kassapa dared not oppose his parents and he comforted Subhadra: "Don't be depressed, we can take turns to sleep. As I am the only son, I don't want to disappoint my parents. Do be patient, our ambition will be fulfilled one day."

Renunciation

Twelve years passed and Maha Kassapa's parents had left the world. One day, Subhadra ordered the servants to extract some sesame oil. There were countless worms wriggling in the sesame oil. Subhadra overheard a conversation by her servants, "There will be a day of retribution as we have killed so many living things. But this is not our fault, we just carry out the order of our mistress," Subhadra was very shocked to hear that and ordered the servants to stop extracting the sesame oil. Then she stayed in her room and immersed herself in thought.

On the same day, Maha Kassapa was inspecting the farm. He saw the farmer and the buffalo working toilsomely in the field and observed that countless worms were killed by the plough and treads. As Maha Kassapa was disgusted at seeing all these living beings suffer, he decided to go home.

When he returned home, he saw his wife looking rather troubled. After saying out what they had seen, both of them felt that the worldly life was miserable and meaningless. Maha Kassapa decided to renounce the world and he asked Subhadra to wait for him at home. He promised her that once he had found a good teacher, he would return and fetch her so that they could renounce the world together.

It was said that the day Maha Kassapa renounced the world coincided with the day that the Lord Buddha attained perfect enlightenment.

Becoming Buddha's Disciple

Maha Kassapa looked for a religious teacher everywhere, but none could satisfy him. Two years later, he was told that Sakyamuni Buddha was the Great Enlightened One who was dwelling in Venuvana (Bamboo-grove) with His thousand disciples. Hence Maha Kassapa followed the devotees to Venuvana to listen to the preaching of the Buddha and was deeply moved by the virtues and wisdom of Buddha. 

One day, after listening to the preaching of Buddha, he went home. On his way home, he saw the Buddha sitting under a tree, as stately as a golden mountain. He was surprised to see the Buddha there as he remembered that the Buddha was still in Venuvana before he left there. He prostrated himself before the Buddha and said, "Lord Buddha, my great teacher, please take me as your disciple."

The Buddha said, "Maha Kassapa, no one in this world is qualified to be your teacher unless he had attained enlightenment. Do come with me."

The Buddha rose and went in the direction of Venuvana. Walking behind the Buddha, Maha Kassapa shed tears of joy. Buddha turned his head and said, "I have heard about you for a long time and I know you will come to see me one day. You will be a great help to the propagation of Buddhism. Do take good care of yourself."

Maha Kassapa attained enlightenment seven days after he was ordained as a monk.

Three years after the Buddha attained the Way, His foster mother Mahaprajapati was allowed to enter the Order and thus a religious group of nuns was formed. This reminded Maha Kassapa of what he had promised Subhadra. Two years after Maha Kassapa renounced the world, Subhadra had actually also renounced the world and became an ascetic of another religion. Maha Kassapa then asked a nun to fetch her.

After Subhadra joined the Order of Bhikkhunis, her surpassing beauty became the topic of gossipers. She hence isolated herself from the masses and stopped begging for food.

Maha Kassapa felt pity for her and with the approval of the Buddha, he shared the food that he begged with her. This however became the topic of gossipers, some even accused them of having an intimate relationship. Maha Kasssapa did not take all this gossip to heart, but in order to encourage Subhadra to practise the Way, he left her alone.

Subhadra devoted every effort to practicing the Way and she finally attained enlightenment.

Offering from a Poor Old Woman

In Savatthi, there was a poor woman who had neither relatives nor home. Once she was seriously ill and lay in the open air. Sometimes when servants of a rich family happened to pour beside her the water used for rinsing rice, she would use a piece of tile to collect the dirty water for drinking.

Maha Kassapa felt pity for her and paid a visit to her. The old lady was surprised to see Maha Kassapa and said, "I am in extreme poverty, no one else in this country is poorer than me. Isn't there any person in this world giving offerings to the monks? Why do you come to see me? You should instead try to save me from poverty."

Maha Kassapa replied, "No one in this world is more dignified and benevolent than the Buddha or His disciples. I am here to save you in poverty. I have thought of helping you to meet your material needs, but material goods can only save you for the time being and you will become poorer in the future. It would be better if you offer anything to me so that you can accumulate merits for your future life and be reborn in a wealthy family or in the heavenly realms."

But the old woman could not find anything to offer to him and she cried sadly: "I have neither food nor clothes to offer to you."

"One who has the will to give alms is not a poor man, one who has a sense of shamefulness is the follower of the Buddha. You possess these two rare treasures in the world, hence you are not poor at all. Those rich people who do not give alms and are shameless are the most ignorant and poorest men."

The old woman was in great joy upon hearing the teachings of Maha Kassapa and she cherished much hopes for the future. She offered Maha Kassapa the water used for rinsing rice. Maha Kassapa drank it before her and her heart was filled with happiness.

Not long after that, this old woman passed away and entered the deva realm. Due to the merits of offering water to Maha Kassapa, she became a beautiful deva. Once, she recalled her good karma and the kindness of Maha Kassapa, hence she descended from the heavens and spread flowers on Maha Kassapa.

A Life of Austerity

Maha Kassapa was a strict observer of the austerity practices. These practices are optional for the monks as they are very demanding, those who practice follow these rules: one dwells under the open sky; eats only alms food; stays no more than three day in one place; takes one meal a day; accept alms food from everyone, without preference; possess only three robes; mediates at the foot of a tree or the open air; wear only rag robes; and live and meditate in burial grounds.

Maha Kassapa enjoyed the life of austerity. He did not join Sariputra and Maha Mogallana in teaching. He just cultivated the this way of practiced earnestly and hence when the Buddha entered Nirvana, he was able to unify the Order.

Maha Kassapa lived as an austere monk even in his old age. Once Buddha held an assembly in the hall and asked Maha Kassapa to sit with Him. Maha Kassapa prostrated himself before the Buddha and said, "Lord Buddha, I am not your chief disciple and hence I am not qualified to sit with you."

The Buddha then described to the Order the boundless virtue of Maha Kassapa and added that even without the His help, Maha Kassapa could still seek his own enlightenment and attain the stage of Pratyeka Arahant.

The Buddha advised Maha Kassapa to stop the austerities practicise, but Maha Kassapa said, "Lord Buddha, I need to continue on in these practices as I am not as able as Sariputra, Maha Mollagana and Purna in Teaching. But I will not forget the kindness of the Buddha and can repay the kindness of the Buddha in this way. One who is propagating the Dharma must set a good example to people, and virtue can be cultivated through the austere life. If one can get used to such an austere life, it shows one's ability for tolerance and the spirit of utter devotion to the Dharma and the people. My practice of the austerities will exert a subtle influence on people's thinking and will indirectly help them. Lord Buddha, for the consolidation of the Buddha's Order and the salvation of all living beings, I feel I can not give up the practice. Please forgive my obstinacy."

After hearing that, the Buddha was pleased, He said to the Bhikkhus, "What Maha Kassapa has said is correct. To propagate the Dharma we must consolidate the Order. To consolidate the Order, we must allow some people if they wish to follow these practices. People like Maha Kassapa can inspire one in the practice of the Dharma. Maha Kassapa, you may do as you wish."

The First Council

The Buddha decided to enter Parinirvana at the age of eighty. During the same year, Maha Mollagana died and entered Nirvana and Sariputra went back to his home town to enter Nirvana. The most suitable persons who could take over the task of Buddha were Maha Kassapa and Ananda.

When Buddha entered Nirvana in the city of Kusinagara, Maha Kassapa was still propagating the Dharma in the northern country. He immediately returned to Kusinagara when he received the news. Everyone was deeply grieved by the departure of the Buddha.

Seven days after Lord Buddha entered Parivirvana. Maha Kassapa finally arrived. When he saw the feet of the Buddha stretching out from the coffin, he made an obeisance to the Buddha and said, "Lord Buddha, the Great Saviour, we will follow your steps."

After that, the feet of the Buddha were back into the coffin and He finally entered Nirvana. Thereupon, Maha Kassapa took the responsibility for the spreading of the Dharma.

Ninety days after the Buddha entered Parinirvana, a Great Assembly was held to agree upon the text of the Buddha's Teachings.

The First Council headed by Maha Kassapa, Ananda, Aniruddha, Upali and Purna was formed and was preside over by Maha Kassapa. When the Buddha was alive, Sariputra and Maha Mollagana were the Buddha's right-hand men. Maha Kassapa seldom participated in religious activities, but he practised the Way diligently. When the Buddha and His two chief disciples entered Nirvana, Maha Kassapa unexpectedly took the responsibility of leading the Order. Thus it can be seen that his attainment and virtue were indeed great.

Maha Kassapa's Nirvana

About thirty years after the assembly of the First Council, Maha Kassapa enter Nirvana. He entrusted his duties to Ananda, then he leaped into the air and went to the Buddha's pagoda to pay homage and make offerings.

When he returned to Savatthi, he paid a visit to King Ajatasatru to make his farewell. But the guards said that the King was asleep and should not be disturbed. Hence he left the palace and came to the Kukkutapada Mountain. The Kukkutapada resembled the shape of the three feet of a cock as there were three small mountains standing on it.

When Maha Kassapa arrived at this mountain, the three mountains split and formed a seat to receive him. Maha Kassapa covered it with grass and sat on it. He said to himself: "I will preserve my body with my miraculous power and cover it with my rag robes. The three mountains enclosed his body. King Ajatasatru was deeply grieved by the news of Maha Kassapa's departure. He went to Kukkutapada Mountain with Ananda. When they reached there, the three mountains opened up and they saw Maha Kassapa sitting up straight and meditating. In addition, his body was covered with Mandara flowers. They both paid homage and made offerings to Maha Kassapa. When they left, the three mountains closed again.


_oOo_
 
                      Mahā Kassapa Thera

One of the Buddha's most eminent disciples, chief among those who upheld minute observances of form (dhutavādānam) (A.i.23). He was born in the brahmin village of Mahātittha in Magadha, and was the son of the brahmin Kapila, his mother being Sumanādevī; he himself was called Pippali. At Ap.ii.583, vs. 56; but there his father is called Kosiyagotta.

When he grew up he refused to marry in spite of the wishes of his parents; but in the end, to escape from their importunities, he agreed to marry if a wife could be found resembling a statue, which he had made. Bhaddā Kāpilānī was found at Sāgala to fulfil these conditions, and though the young people wrote to each other suggesting that somebody else should be found as a match for each, their letters were intercepted and they were married. By mutual consent, however, the marriage was not consummated, the two spending the night separated by a chain of flowers. Pippali had immense wealth; he used twelve measures of perfumed powder daily, each measure a Magadhanāli, for his person alone. He had sixty lakes with water works attached, and his workmen occupied fourteen villages, each as large as Anurādhapura.

One day he went to a field, which was being ploughed and saw the birds eating the worms turned up by the plough. On being told that the sin therein was his, he decided to renounce all his possessions.
At the same time, Bhaddā had been watching the crows eating the little insects, which ran about among the seamsum seeds that had been put out to dry, and when her attendant women told her that hers would be the sin for their loss of life, she also determined to renounce the world.

The husband and wife, finding that they were of one accord, took yellow raiments from their wardrobe, cut off each other's hair, took bowls in their hands, and passed out through their weeping servants, to all of whom they granted their freedom, and departed together, Pippali walking in front. But soon they agreed that it was not seemly they should walk thus together, as each must prove a hindrance to the other. And so, at the cross roads, he took the right and she the left and the earth trembled to see such virtue.

The Buddha, sitting in the Gandhakuti in Veluvana, knew what the earthquake signified, and having walked three gāvutas (this journey of the Buddha is often referred to -  e.g., MA.i.347, 357), sat down at the foot of the Bahuputtaka Nigrodha, between Rājagaha and Nālandā, resplendent in all the glory of a Buddha. Pippali (henceforth called Mahā Kassapa, no explanation is to be found anywhere as to why he is called Kassapa; it was probably his gotta name, but see Ap.ii.583, vs.56) saw the Buddha, and recognising him at once as his teacher, prostrated himself before him. The Buddha told him to be seated, and, in three homilies, gave him his ordination.

The three homilies are given at S.ii.220, "Thus Kassapa must thou train thyself:

(1) 'There shall be a lively sense of fear and regard (hirotappa) towards all monks, seniors, novices, and those of middle status.'

(2) 'Whatever doctrine I shall hear bearing upon what is good, to all that I will hearken with attentive ear, digesting it, pondering it, gathering it all up with my will.'

(3) 'Happy mindfulness with respect to the body shall not be neglected by me.'"

Together they returned to Rājagaha, Kassapa, who bore on his body seven of the thirty two marks of a Great Being, following the Buddha. 

On the way, the Buddha desired to sit at the foot of a tree by the roadside, and Kassapa folded for him his outer robe (pilotikasanghāti) as a seat. The Buddha sat on it and, feeling it with his hand, praised its softness. Kassapa asked him to accept it. "And what would you wear?" inquired the Buddha. 

Kassapa then begged that he might be given the rag robe worn by the Buddha. "It is faded with use," said the Buddha, but Kassapa said he would prize it above the whole world and the robes were exchanged. (The robe which Kassapa exchanged with the Buddha was Punnā's cloak. See Punnā 6).

This incident Kassapa always recalled with pride, e.g. S.ii.221. It is said that the Buddha paid him this great honour because he knew that Kassapa would hold a recital after his death, and thus help in the perpetuation of his religion, SA.ii.130. The earth quaked again in recognition of Kassapa's virtues, for no ordinary being would have been fit to wear the Buddha's cast off robe. Kassapa, conscious of the great honour, took upon himself the thirteen austere vows (dhutagunā) and, after eight days, became an arahant.

In the past Kassapa and Bhaddā had been husband and wife and companions in good works in many births. In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Kassapa was a very rich householder named Vedeha and married to Bhaddā, and very devoted to the Buddha. One day he heard the Buddha's third disciple in rank (Nisabha) being awarded the place of pre eminence among those who observed austere practices, and registered a wish for a similar honour for himself in the future. 

He learnt from the Buddha of the qualities in which Nisabha excelled the Buddha himself, and determined to obtain them. With this end in view, during birth after birth, he expended all his energies in goods deeds. Ninety one kappas ago; in the time of Vipassī Buddha, he was the brahmin Ekasātaka and Bhaddā was his wife. In the interval between Konāgamana and Kassapa Buddhas he was a setthiputta. 

He married Bhaddā, but because of an evil deed she had done in the past (see Bhaddā Kāpilānī), she became unattractive to him and he left her, taking her as wife again when she became attractive. Having seen from what had happened to his wife how great was the power of the Buddhas, the setthiputta wrapped Kassapa Buddha's golden cetiya with costly robes and decked it with golden lotuses, each the size of a cartwheel.

The Therī Apadāna (Ap.ii.582. vs. 47-51) gives an account of two more of his lives, one as Sumitta and the other as Koliyaputta, in both of which he and his wife ministered to Pacceka Buddhas.
In the next birth he was Nanda, king of Benares, and, because he had given robes in past lives, he had thirty two kapparukkhas, which provided him and all the people of his kingdom with garments. 

At the suggestion of his queen, he made preparations to feed holy men, and five hundred Pacceka Buddhas, sons of Padumā, came to accept his gift. In that life, too, Nanda and his queen renounced the world and became ascetics, and having developed the jhānas, were reborn in the Brahma world.

This account of Kassapa's last life and his previous life is compiled from AA.i.92ff.; SA.ii.135ff.; ThagA.ii.134ff.; Ap.ii.578ff. Ap.i.33ff. gives other particulars -  that he made offerings at Padumuttara's funeral pyre and that he was once a king named Ubbiddha in the city of Rammaka; see also ApA.i.209f.

Kassapa was not present at the death of the Buddha; as he was journeying from Pāvā to Kusināra he met an ājīvaka carrying in his hand a mandārava flower picked up by him from among those which had rained from heaven in honour of the Buddha, and it was he who told Kassapa the news. It was then the seventh day after the Buddha's death, and the Mallas had been trying in vain to set fire to his pyre. 

The arahant theras, who were present, declared that it could not be kindled until Mahā Kassapa and his five hundred companions had saluted the Buddha's feet. Mahā Kassapa then arrived and walked three times round the pyre with bared shoulder, and it is said the Buddha's feet became visible from out of the pyre in order that he might worship them. He was followed by his five hundred colleagues, and when they had all worshipped the feet disappeared and the pyre kindled of itself (D.ii.163f).

It is said (Mhv.xxxi.20f.; see also Vsm.430) that the relics of the Buddha which fell to Ajātasattu's share were taken to Rājagaha by Kassapa, in view of that which would happen in the future. At Pāvā (on the announcement of the Buddha's death), Kassapa had heard the words of Subhadda, who, in his old age, had joined the Order, that they were "well rid of the great samana and could now do as they liked." 

This remark it was which had suggested to Kassapa's mind the desirability of holding a Recital of the Buddha's teachings. He announced his intention to the assembled monks, and, as the senior among them and as having been considered by the Buddha himself to be fit for such a task, he was asked to make all necessary arrangements (e.g., DA.i.3). 

In accordance with his wishes, all the monks, other than the arahants chosen for the Recital, left Rājagaha during the rainy season. The five hundred who were selected met in Council under the presidency of Kassapa and recited the Dhamma and the Vinaya (DA.i.3f.; 5ff.; Sp.i.4.ff.; Mhv.iii.3ff). This recital is called the Therasangitī or Theravāda.

The books contain numerous references to Mahā Kassapa -  he is classed with Moggallāna, Kappina, and Anuruddha for his great iddhi-powers. E.g., S.i.114; but his range of knowledge was limited; there were certain things which even Kassapa did not know (DhA.i.258).

The Buddha regarded him as equal to himself in exhorting the monks to lead the active and zealous lives (S.ii.205), and constantly held him up as an example to others in his great contentment (S.ii.194f) and his ability to win over families by his preaching. 

The Buddha compares him to the moon (candopama), unobtrusive; his heart was free from bondage, and he always taught others out of a feeling of compassion. S.ii.197ff. Kassapa's freedom from any kind of attachment was, as the Buddha pointed out to the monks, due to the earnest wish he had made for that attainment in the past, "He has no attachment to requisites or households or monasteries or cells; but is like a royal swan which goes down into a lake and swims there, while the water does not adhere to his body" (DhA.ii.169f.).

The Buddha also thought him equal to himself in his power of attaining the jhānas and abiding therein (S.ii.210ff).

Kassapa was willing to help monks along their way, and several instances are given of his exhortations to them (E.g., Thag.vss.1051-57, 1072-81, and his long sermon at A.v.161ff ); but he was evidently sensitive to criticism, and would not address them unless he felt them to be tractable and deferential to instruction. E.g., S.ii.203ff.; and at 219, when Thullanandā finds fault with him for blaming Ananda. See below. Kassapa had good reason for not wishing to address recalcitrant monks. The Kutidūsaka Jātaka relates how one of his disciples, Ulunka Saddaka, angered by some admonition from Kassapa, burnt the latter's grass hut while he was away on his alms round (J.iii.71f.).

He was very reluctant to preach to the nuns, but on one occasion he allowed himself to be persuaded by Ananda, and accompanied by him he visited the nunnery and preached to the nuns. 

He was probably not popular among them, for, at the end of his discourse, Thullatissā openly reviled him for what she called his impertinence in having dared to preach in the presence of Ananda, "as if the needle pedlar were to sell a needle to the needle maker." (S.ii.215f) Kassapa loved Ananda dearly, and was delighted when Ananda attained arahantship in time to attend the First Recital, and when Ananda appeared before the arahants, it was Kassapa who led the applause (DA.i.10f). 

But Kassapa was very jealous of the good name of the Order, and we find him (S.ii.218f) blaming Ananda for admitting into the Order new members incapable of observing its discipline and of going about with them in large numbers, exposing the Order to the criticism of the public.

 "A corn trampler art thou, Ananda," he says, "a despoiler of families, thy following is breaking up, thy youngsters are melting away," and ends up with "The boy, methinks, does not know his own measure." Ananda, annoyed at being called "boy," protests   "Surely my head is growing grey hairs, your reverence." This incident, says the Commentary took place after the Buddha's death, when Ananda, as a new arahant and with all the honour of his intimacy with the Buddha, whose bowl and robe he now possessed, had become a notable personage. SA.ii.133; Ananda regarded Kassapa in some sort of way as a teacher, and held him in great respect, not daring to mention even his name, lest it should imply disrespect (see Vin.i.92f.).

Thullanandā heard Kassapa censuring Ananda and raised her voice in protest, "What now? Does Kassapa, once a heretic, deem that he can chide the learned sage Ananda?" Kassapa was hurt by her words, and complained to Ananda that such things should be said of him who had been singled out by the Buddha for special honour.

Kassapa viewed with concern the growing laxity among members of the Order with regard to the observance of rules, even in the very lifetime of the Buddha, and the falling off in the number of those attaining arahantship, and we find him consulting the Buddha as to what should be done. S.ii.224f. At the First Council, when Ananda stated that the Buddha had given leave for the monks to do away with the minor rules of the Order, Kassapa was opposed to any such step, lest it should lead to slackness among the monks and contempt from the laity (Vin.ii.287f.).

Kassapa himself did his utmost to lead an exemplary life, dwelling in the forest, subsisting solely on alms, wearing rag robes, always content with little, holding himself aloof from society, ever strenuous and energetic. See also the Mahāgosinga Sutta (M.i.214), where Kassapa declares his belief in the need for these observances; that his example was profitable to others is proved by the case of Somamitta who, finding his own teacher Vimala given up to laziness, sought Kassapa and attained arahantship under his guidance.

When asked why he led such a life, he replied that it was not only for his own happiness but also out of compassion for those who came after him, that they might attain to the same end. Even when he was old and the Buddha himself had asked him to give up his coarse rag robe and to dwell near him, he begged to be excused. S.ii.202f; but See Jotidāsa, who is said to have built a vihāra for Kassapa, and entertained him.

Once, when Kassapa lay grievously ill at Pipphaliguhā, the Buddha visited him and reminded him of the seven bojjhangas which he had practised (S.v.78).

The knowledge that he had profited by the Master's teaching, we are told (SA.iii.128), calmed his blood and purified his system, and the sickness fell away from him "like a drop of water from a lotus leaf." He disdained being waited upon by anybody, even by a goddess such as Lājā , lest he should set a bad example (DhA.iii.6ff).

Owing to his great saintliness, even the gods vied with each other to give alms to Kassapa. Once when he had risen from a trance lasting seven days, five hundred nymphs, wives of Sakka, appeared before him; but, snapping his fingers, he asked them to depart, saying that he bestowed his favours only on the poor.

The story of Kālavilangika is an example of Kassapa's compassion for the poor. Once, after a seven days' trance, he went to the house of Kālavilanga and received alms from his wife, which he gave to the Buddha for their greater benefit. The Buddha took a portion of this and gave the rest to five hundred monks. Kālavilangika, received only a mouthful of the food left. The Buddha said that as a result he would be a setthi within seven days. Kālavilangika told this to his wife. It happened that a few days later the king saw a man impaled alive in the place of execution; the man begged him for some food, which he agreed to send. At night, when eating, the king remembered his promise, but could find no one bold enough to go to the cemetery. On the offer of one thousand pieces, 

Kālavilangika's wife agreed to go in the guise of a man. On the way she was stopped by the yakkha Dīghataphala, who, however, later released her and gave her treasure, as did also the yakkha's father in law, the deva Sumana. The man ate the food and, when wiping his mouth, recognised her as a woman and caught hold of her hair. But she cut off her hair, and proved to the satisfaction of the king that her mission had been accomplished. She then recovered the treasure given her by the yakkha and Sumana; when the king discovered her wealth, she and her husband were raised to the rank of setthi (MA.ii.812ff.).

When Sakka heard of this, he disguised himself as a weaver worn with age, and accompanied by Sujātā, transformed into an old woman, appeared in a weaver's hut along the lane where Kassapa was begging. The ruse succeeded and Kassapa accepted their alms; but, later, be discovered the truth and chided Sakka. Sakka begged forgiveness, and, on being assured that in spite of his deception the almsgiving would bring him merit, he flew into the air shouting, "Aho dānam, mahā danam, Kassapassa patitthitam." The Buddha heard this and sympathised with Sakka in his great joy (DhA.i.423ff.; cp. Ud.iii.7).

But on one occasion so great was the importunity with which the monks of Alavi had wearied the people, that even Mahā Kassapa failed to get alms from them (J.ii.282). The Visuddhi Magga (403) relates a story of how once, when Kassapa was begging for alms in Rājagaha, in the company of the Buddha, on a festival day, five hundred maidens were going to the festival carrying cakes, "round like the moon." They saw the Buddha but passed him by, and gave their cakes to Kassapa. The Elder made all the cakes fill just his single bowl and offered it to the Buddha (This is probably the incident referred to at Vsm.68).

Sāriputta seems to have held Kassapa in great esteem, and the Kassapa Samyutta contains two discussions between them: one on the necessity for zeal and ardour in the attainment of Nibbāna (S.ii.195f), and the other on the existence of a Tathāgata after death (S.ii.222f). This regard was mutual, for when Kassapa saw the great honour paid to Sāriputta by the devas he rejoiced greatly and broke forth into song (Thag.vs.1082 5).

Kassapa lived to be very old, and, when he died, had not lain on a bed for one hundred and twenty years. DA.ii.413; AA.ii.596; he was one hundred and twenty at the time of the First Recital (SA.ii.130). According, to northern sources, Kassapa did not die; he dwells in the Kukkutagiri Mountains, wrapt in samādhi, awaiting the arrival of Metteyya Buddha (Beal, op. cit., ii.142f.). A tooth of Mahā Kassapa was enshrined in the Bhīmatittha vihāra in Ceylon (Cv.lxxxv.81).

He is several times referred to in the Jātakas. Thus, he was
the father in the Gagga Jātaka (ii.17),
the brahmin in the Kurudhamma (ii.381),
one of the devaputtas in the Kakkāru (iii.90),
Mendissara in the Indriya (iii.469), and in the Sarabhanga (v.151),
the father in the Padakusalamānava (iii.514),
the teacher in the Tittira (iii.545),
Mātali in the Bīlārakosiya (iv.69),
one of the seven brothers in the Bhissa (iv.314),
the bear in the Pañcuposatha (iv.332),
the chaplain in the Hatthipāla (iv.491),
Vidhura in the Sambhava (v.67),
the senior ascetic in the Sankhapāla (v.177),
Kulavaddhana setthi in the Cullasutasoma (v.192),
Suriya in the Sudhābhojana (v.412),
the tree sprite in the Mahāsutasoma (v.511),
the father in the Sāma (vi.95), and Sūra Vāmagotta in the Khandahāla (vi.157).

Mahā Kassapa was so called to distinguish him from other Kassapas (BuA.42; chiefly Kumāra Kassapa, VibhA.60), and also because he was possessed of great virtues (mahanti hi sīlakkhanda hi Samannāgatattā).
_oOo_
 Venerable Maha Kaccana

Maha Kaccana: Master of Doctrinal Exposition Katyayana, also known as Kaccana (or Kaccayana), Mahakatyayana, Mahakaccana and in Japanese as Kasennen, is one of the “Ten Disciples of the Buddha”. He was foremost in explaining Dharma.

He was born at Ujjení in the brahmin family of the chaplain of King Candappajjota, and was called Kaccána both because of his golden colour and because Kaccána was the name of his gotta. He received a classical Brahminical education studying the Vedas and, on the death of his father, succeeded him as chaplain. Kaccána’s father was called Tirítivaccha (or Tidivavaccha), and his mother Candapadumá. Katyayana studied assiduously under Asita on Mount Vindhya, who had predicted that Prince Siddharta would become either a cakravartin, a great worldly ruler, or a Buddha.

With seven others he visited the Buddha, at the request of Candappajjota, to invite him to come to Ujjení. Kaccána and his friends listened to the Buddha’s sermon, and having attained arahantship, joined the order. He then conveyed the king’s invitation to the Buddha, who pointed out that it would now suffice if Kaccána himself returned to Ujjení. Kaccána accordingly set out for Ujjení with his seven companions, accepting alms on the way at the house of a very poor girl of Telappanáli, who later became Candappajjota’s queen.

For details see Telappanáli. Arrived in Ujjení, Kaccána lived in the royal park, where the king showed him all honour. He preached constantly to the people, and, attracted by his discourses, numerous persons joined the Order, so that the whole city was one blaze of orange robes. It is said that after having duly established the sásana in Avantí, Kaccána returned once more to the Buddha. (Thus, the explanation of the Madhupindika Sutta was given at Kapilavatthu).

Candappajjota consulted him on various occasions, and among the verses attributed to him in the Theragáthá (Thag.vss.494 501), are several addressed to the king himself. It is said (DhA.ii.176) that even when Kaccána was living at Avanti, a long distance away, he went regularly to hear the Buddha preach, and when the chief theras took their places in the assembly, they always left room for him.

On one such occasion Sakka showed him great honour, falling at his feet, and the Buddha explained that this was because Mahá Kaccána kept his senses well guarded. He understood Shakyamuni Buddha’s lecture the best. Although he had only five master in the rural areas, he was permitted to learn Vinaya by the Buddha. Tradition attributes the authorship to Katyayana of the Nettipakarana, a work of grammar, and the Petakopadesa, a treatise on exegetical methodology, although these were most probably composed by a school descended from him.

In Lotus Sutra Chapter 6 (Bestowal of Prophecy), the Buddha bestows prophecies of enlightenment on the disciples Mahakashyapa, Subhuti, Maha Katyayana, and Mahamaudgalyayana. He is known as Phra Sangkajai in Thai Buddhism and portrayed as extremely portly. - See more at: http://www.btrts.org.sg/ven-maha-kaccana#sthash.M4I5pwPr.dpuf

http://www.jyotisrivastavaphotography.com/2013-india-trip-bodh-gaya-part-vii-the-great-buddha-statue-japan/

http://www.ic.sunysb.edu/Clubs/buddhism/sutras_BSPG.html

Tổ Bồ-Đề-Đạt-Ma


~ o ~

       First Ch’an Patriarch in China

Shaolin Temple, Mount Tung (shan)

DengFeng County, Henan Province, China

(Sơ Tổ Trung Hoa, Thiếu Lâm Tự, Tung Sơn, quận Đằng Phong, tỉnh Hà Nam, Trung Hoa)

Bodhidharma

 (~440AD – ~536AD)



   
The object of my coming to this land (i.e., China)            

Is to transmit the Dharma for the deliverance of those under delusion.            

In five petals the flowers will be complete.            

Thereafter, the fruit will come to bearing naturally.

_His Holiness Bodhidharma      

~oOo~

The lineage from Shakyamuni Buddha to Bodhidharma

and from Bodhidharma to Hui-Neng 

   

              Shakyamuni Buddha             

1.Maha Kasyapa (Tổ Đại Ca Diếp)

2.Ananda (Tổ A Nan)

3.Sanavasa

4.Upagupta

5.Dhritaka

6.Michaka

7.Vasumitra

8.Buddhanandi

9.Buddhamitra

10.Parhsva

11.Punyayasas

12.Asvaghosa

13.Kapimala

14.Nagarjuna (Tổ Long Thọ, President of Nalanda University)

15.Kanadeva

16.Rahulata

17.Sanghanandi

18.Sanghayasas

19.Kumarata

20.Jayata

21.Vasubandhu

22.Manura (Manorhita/Manorhata)

23.Haklenayasas

24.Aryasimha

25.Vasiasta (Vasi-Asita)

26.Punyamitra

27.Prajnatara  (Tổ Bát Nhã Đa La)

28.Bodhidharma (Tổ 28th ở Tây Thiên, Nhất Tổ Trung Hoa)

29. Huiko (Nhị Tổ Huệ – Khả)

30. Sengtsan (d.606AD) (Tam Tổ Tăng – Xán)

31. Daoxin (Tứ Tổ Đạo – Tín)

32. Hungren (Ngũ Tổ Hoằng Nhẫn)

33. Hui-Neng ( Lục Tổ Huệ – Năng, Người đất Lĩnh Nam, Quảng Đông!)    




        The Sixth Patriarch Hui-Neng (638-713)


~oOo~

Faith-In Mind

              (Hsin-hsin-ming)            

Gatha of Seng T’san, Third Chan Patriarch

It’s not difficult to discover your Buddha Mind
But just don’t try to search for it.
Cease accepting and rejecting possible places
Where you think it can be found
And it will appear before you.          

Be warned! The slightest exercise of preference
Will open a gulf as wide and deep
as the space between heaven and earth.            

If you want to encounter your Buddha Mind
Don’t have opinions about anything.
Opinions produce argument
And contentiousness is a disease of the mind.            

Plunge into the depths.
Stillness is deep. There’s nothing profound in shallow waters.
The Buddha Mind is perfect and it encompasses the universe.
It lacks nothing and has nothing in excess.
If you think that you can choose between its parts
You’ll miss its very essence.            

Don’t cling to externals, the opposite things,
the things that exist as relative.
Accept them all impartially
And you won’t have to waste time in pointless choosing.            

Judgments and discriminations block the flow
and stir the passions.
They roil the mind that needs stillness and peace.
If you go from either-or, this and that,
or any of the countless opposites,
You’ll miss the whole, the One.
Following an opposite you’ll be led astray,
away from the balancing center.
How can you hope to gain the One?            

To decide what is, is to determine what’s not.
But determining what’s not can occupy you
so that it becomes what is.
The more you talk and think, the farther away you get.
Cease talking and thinking and you’ll find it everywhere.            

If you let all things return to their source, that’s fine.
But if you stop to think that this is your goal
And that this is what success depends upon
And strive and strive instead of simply letting go,
You won’t be doing Zen.
The moment that you start discriminating and preferring
you miss the mark.
Seeking the real is a false view
which should also be abandoned.
Just let go. Cease searching and choosing.
Decisions give rise to confusions
and in confusion where can a mind go?            

All the opposing pairs come from the One Great Buddha Mind.
Accept the pairs with gentle resignation.
The Buddha Mind stays calm and still,
Keep your mind within it and nothing can disturb you.
The harmless and the harmful cease to exist.
Subjects when disengaged from their objects vanish
Just as surely as objects,
when disengaged from their subjects, vanish too.
Each depends on the existence of the other.
Understand this duality and you’ll see
that both issue from the Void of the Absolute.            

The Ground of all Being contains all the opposites.
From the One, all things originate.
What a waste of time to choose between coarse and fine.
Since the Great Mind gives birth to all things,
Embrace them all and let your prejudices die.            

To realize the Great Mind be neither hesitant nor eager.
If you try to grasp it, you’ll cling to air
and fall into the way of heretics.
Where is the Great Dao? Can you lay It down?
Will It stay or go?
Is It not everywhere waiting for you
to unite your nature with Its nature
and become as trouble free as It is?            

Don’t tire your mind by worrying about what is real
and what isn’t,
About what to accept and what to reject.
If you want to know the One,
let your senses experience what comes your way,
But don’t be swayed and don’t involve yourself in what comes.
The wise man acts without emotion
and seems not to be acting at all.
The ignorant man lets his emotions get involved.
The wise man knows that all things are part of the One.
The ignorant man sees differences everywhere.            

All things are the same at their core
but clinging to one and discarding another
Is living in illusion.
A mind is not a fit judge of itself.
It is prejudiced in its own favor or disfavor.
It cannot see anything objectively.            

Bodhi is far beyond all notions of good and evil,
beyond all the pairs of opposites.
Daydreams are illusions and flowers in the sky never bloom.
They are figments of the imagination
and not worth your consideration.
Profit and Loss, right and wrong, coarse and fine.
Let them all go.
Stay awake. Keep your eyes open.
Your daydreams will disappear.
If you do not make judgments, everything will be
exactly as it is supposed to be.            

Deep is the Tathagata’s wisdom,
Lofty and beyond all illusions.
This is the One to which all things return
provided you do not separate them,
keeping some and casting others away.
Where can you put them anyway?
All things are within the One.
There is no outside.            

The Ultimate has no pattern, no duality,
and is never partial.
Trust in this. Keep your faith strong.
When you lay down all distinctions there’s nothing left
but Mind that is now pure, that radiates wisdom,
and is never tired.            

When Mind passes beyond discriminations
Thoughts and feelings cannot plumb its depths.
The state is absolute and free.
There is neither self nor other.
You will be aware only that you are part of the One.
Everything is inside and nothing is outside.            

All wise men everywhere understand this.
This knowledge is beyond time, long or short,
This knowledge is eternal. It neither is nor is not.
Everywhere is here and the smallest equals the largest.
Space cannot confine anything.
The largest equals the smallest.
There are no boundaries, no within and without.
What is and what is not are the same,
For what is not is equal to what is.
If you do not awaken to this truth,
do not worry yourself about it.
Just believe that your Buddha Mind is not divided,
That it accepts all without judgment.
Give no thoughts to words and speeches or pretty plans
The eternal has no present, past or future.            

~oOo~

Song Of The Grass Hut

By Ancestor

Shitou Xiqian 
(700-790AD)

(Tổ Thạch Đẩu Tây Thiên)

I’ve built a grass hut where there’s nothing of value.
 After eating, I relax and enjoy a nap.
 When it was completed, fresh weeds appeared.
Now it’s been lived in-covered by weeds.
The person in the hut lives here calmly,
Not stuck to inside, outside, or in-between.

Places worldly people live, he doesn’t live.

Realms worldly people love, he doesn’t love.

Though the hut is small, it includes the entire world.

In ten feet square, an old man illumines forms and their nature.

A Mahayana bodhisattva trusts without doubt.

The middling or lowly can’t help wondering;

Will this hut perish or not?

Perishable or not, the original master is present,

Not dwelling south or north, east or west.

Firmly based on steadiness, it can’t be surpassed.

A shining window below the green pines-

Jade palaces or vermilion towers can’t compare with it.

Just sitting with head covered all things are at rest.

Thus, this mountain monk doesn’t understand at all.

Living here he no longer works to get free.

Who would proudly arrange seats, trying to entice guests?

Turn around the light to shine within, then just return.

The vast inconceivable source can’t be faced or turned away from.

Meet the ancestral teachers, be familiar with their instructions,

Bind grasses to build a hut, and don’t give up.

Let go of hundreds of years and relax completely.

Open your hands and walk, innocent.

Thousands of words, myriad interpretations,

Are only to free you from obstructions.

If you want to know the undying person in the hut,

Don’t separate from this skin bag here and now.

~oOo~
Let’s hear the 4 amazing incidents in the life of Buddha!
1
Once a man approached Buddha looking furious. He was a businessman and his two sons were followers of Buddha. But this man felt that his sons were wasting time with Buddha instead of concentrating on business. He felt that spending four hours of their day seated next to someone whose eyes were always closed was incredulous. The businessman was very upset.

So, with seething anger, he went straight to Buddha, looked him in the eye and spat on his face. Buddha simply smiled. He showed no anger but his disciples around him got very angry. And who wouldn’t feel that way when you see someone spit on the face of your teacher. They, however, had to keep quiet since Buddha was with them. When the businessman saw that his action got no reaction, he walked away in a huff.

The businessman could not sleep in the night thinking of Buddha. The smile of Buddha haunted him and he became very restless. Next day, he went to Buddha and fell at his feet and asked for forgiveness for his actions. Buddha said, “I cannot excuse you!”

Everyone present including the man and Buddhas disciples were shocked by Buddha’s words. Then Buddha explained, “Why should I forgive you when you have done nothing wrong.”

The businessman told Buddha that he has wronged Buddha by spitting on his face.

Buddha simply said, “Oh! That person on whom you spit is not here right now. If I ever meet that person whom you spat on, I will tell him to excuse you. To this person who is here, you have done no wrong.” That is real compassion.

2
Once, Buddha went for begging in a house. The householder instead of giving any alms starting scolding Buddha. He shouted, “You are such an able-bodied person who is a prince and could have done great good to the world by working but you are now begging. It’s a shame.” etc.

Buddha listened to him calmly and after he finished, asked whether he can ask a question. The person consented. Buddha asked that if a parcel is sent to somebody and the receiver does not receive it, to whom does the parcel belong to? The man said that in that case the parcel should come back to the sender. Lord Buddha said that he had not received whatever the person has said, and left.

3
There is this lady who came to Buddha with her dead baby and asked him to revive the child. Buddha said he would do the needful but he needs a vital ingredient to bring about the resurrection. He asked her to get salt from a house which had never seen death.

The woman went from door to door the whole day but she could not find such a house. Later in the evening, she went to Buddha and fell at his feet and said that she understands it now. She is not the only person who has suffered the loss of a loved one! We can all derive a great lesson from this story. Everyone has to go through pain in their life. We should stop feeling victimized by circumstances, overcome the miseries and move on.

4
During the time of Buddha, there was a fearsome dacoit by the name of Angulimal. He was a monster who had vowed to cut off a thousand heads with his sword. And as a memento, he would cut one finger from each of his victims and made a garland of fingers. Once Buddha along with his followers was travelling through the hill in which the dangerous dacoit resided. 

When finally Buddha came near the dacoit, he raised his sword and told Buddha that he is going to cut his head off. 

Buddha as usual was his smiling self and said’ “My head is for yours to take but it is an old tradition to fulfill the last desire of a dying person.” 

When Angulimal asked Buddha what his last wish was, Buddha simply told him to cut off a branch from a nearby tree. 

When the dacoit did so, Buddha told him to put it back to the tree and make it whole like before. Angulimal told Buddha that it was not possible to do so. 

That’s when Buddha said, it is easy to cut off the branch of a tree just like it is easy to cut off my head. It can be done by any child. 

What is difficult is to create, to heal and that only real men of real power can do! Cutting of someone’s head is childs play. But to give life to a fellow being is what needs power and that’s what the real mighty do! 

Angulimal realized the vanity of his pursuit and dropped the sword. He went on to become Buddhas disciple and spent his time in contemplation and understanding the true meaning of life.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86JL9-UdZfQ&t=17s
~oOo~

The Heart Sutra (in English)

This translation of the beloved sutra comes from the chanting book of the Kwan Um school of Zen:

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The Maha
Prajna Paramita Hrdaya Sutra


Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva
when practicing deeply the Prajna Paramita
perceives that all five skandhas are empty
and is saved from all suffering and distress.

Shariputra,
form does not differ from emptiness,
emptiness does not differ from form.
That which is form is emptiness,
that which is emptiness form.

The same is true of feelings,
perceptions, impulses, consciousness.

Shariputra,
all dharmas are marked with emptiness;
they do not appear or disappear,
are not tainted or pure,
do not increase or decrease.

Therefore, in emptiness no form, no feelings,
perceptions, impulses, consciousness.

No eyes, no ears, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind;
no color, no sound, no smell, no taste, no touch,
no object of mind;
no realm of eyes
and so forth until no realm of mind consciousness.

No ignorance and also no extinction of it,
and so forth until no old age and death
and also no extinction of them.
No suffering, no origination,
no stopping, no path, no cognition,
also no attainment with nothing to attain.

The Bodhisattva depends on Prajna Paramita
and the mind is no hindrance;
without any hindrance no fears exist.
Far apart from every perverted view one dwells in Nirvana.

In the three worlds
all Buddhas depend on Prajna Paramita
and attain Anuttara Samyak Sambodhi.

Therefore, know that Prajna Paramita
is the great transcendent mantra
is the great bright mantra,
is the utmost mantra,
is the supreme mantra,
which is able to relieve all suffering
and is true, not false.
So proclaim the Prajna Paramita mantra,
proclaim the mantra which says:

gate, gate, paragate, parasamgate, bodhi svaha
gate, gate, paragate, parasamgate, bodhi svaha
gate, gate, paragate, parasamgate, bodhi svaha
-oOo-
Top 31 Buddha Quotes To Enlighten Your Mind and Soul
POSTED ON JANUARY 11, 2016 BY VISHNU VERMA | CATEGORIES: HAPPINESS, MOTIVATION, SELF IMPROVEMENT
Our lives have become so stressful that we had almost forgotten about our true self. Clearly, in search of materialistic things, we are damaging the internal peace of our mind.

In search of peace and enlightenment, millions of people started following Buddhism. Founder of Buddhism, Gautama has created and inspired generations of people to be their best selves, no matter where they came from.

His teachings can enlighten your mind and soul and will teach you how to live your life to the fullest.  Here are the top 31 Buddha Quotes for living a peaceful life.

Top 31 Buddha Quotes To Enlighten Your Mind and Soul
We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. – Buddha

When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves. – Buddha

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. –Buddha


Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without. – Buddha

The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, nor to worry about the future, but to live the present moment wisely and earnestly. – Buddha

Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned. – Buddha

The mind is everything. What you think you become. – Buddha

Your purpose in life is to find your purpose and give your whole heart and soul to it. – Buddha

The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser. – Buddha

Every morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most. – Buddha

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world. – Buddha


There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed. – Buddha

All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain? – Buddha

To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others – Buddha

You will not be punished for your anger; you will be punished by your anger. – Buddha

Every human being is the author of his own health or disease. – Buddha

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path. – Buddha

If your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete. – Buddha

Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. – Buddha

Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace. – Buddha

Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill. – Buddha

Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law. – Buddha

There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path. – Buddha

An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea. – Buddha

To understand everything is to forgive everything. – Buddha

Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense. – Buddha

Patience is key. Remember: A jug fills drop by drop. – Buddha

Pain is certain, suffering is optional. – Buddha

Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little. – Buddha

I never see what has been done, I only see what remains to be done.” – Buddha

Happiness will never come to those who fail to appreciate what they already have. – Buddha

I hope you enjoyed reading the peaceful quotes by Buddha. Now don’t wait, head over to our Instagram page for more inspirational quotes.

Vishnu Verma writes at Calling Dreams, where he inspire people to pursue dreams. He hates procrastination and love his dreams. Follow Calling Dreams on Instagram and Facebook for more motivational quotes.

-oOo-



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~O~


Paro Taktsang Monastery (the Tiger's Nest) built 1692


The Tiger's Nest

File:Taktshang2.jpg

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File:First glimpse of Taktshang.jpg

~ o ~



Map of old Tibet.  note: Lake Kokonor is near Kumbum area.

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Drepung Monastery in Lhasa

Drepung Monastery

Jamyang Choeje Tashi-Pelden




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Sera Monastery - photo taken before 1950

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Ganden

Gaden Monastery in Old Tibet destroyed by Chinese communists during cultural revolution 1966-1976
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